What is meant by Electrical Resistance?
Resistance is a measure of the opposition to current flow in an electrical circuit. Resistance is measured in ohms, symbolized by the Greek letter omega (Ω). Ohms are named after Georg Simon Ohm (1784-1854), a German physicist who studied the relationship between voltage, current and resistance.
If we make an analogy to water flow in pipes, the resistance is bigger when the pipe is thinner, so the water flow is decreased.
The resistance of a conductor is resistivity of the conductor’s material times the conductor’s length divided by the conductor’s cross sectional area.
R is the resistance in ohms (Ω).
ρ is the resistivity in ohms-meter (Ω×m)
l is the length of the conductor in meter (m)
A is the cross sectional area of the conductor in square meters (m2)
It is easy to understand this formula with water pipes analogy:
- when the pipe is longer, the length is bigger and the resistance will increase.
- when the pipe is wider, the cross sectional area is bigger and the resistance will decrease.
Resistance calculation with ohm’s law
R is the resistance of the resistor in ohms (Ω).
V is the voltage drop on the resistor in volts (V).
I is the current of the resistor in amperes (A).
Temperature effects of resistance
The resistance of a resistor increases when temperature of the resistor increases.
R2 = R1 × ( 1 + α(T2 – T1) )
R2 is the resistance at temperature T2 in ohms (Ω).
R1 is the resistance at temperature T1 in ohms (Ω).
α is the temperature coefficient.
Resistance of resistors in series
The total equivalent resistance of resistors in series is the sum of the resistance values:
RTotal = R1+ R2+ R3+…
Resistance of resistors in parallel
The total equivalent resistance of resistors in parallel is given by: